14th of December

Life and Death

Haaga

From my own perspective, Haaga is an area that lacks of an attractive point to local residents or visitors. The infrastructure, including hospitals, schools, domestic shops or religion spaces only offers basic support to local residents. There are no cultural facilities nor diverse leisure or public space. It seems like Haaga is struggling to find an identity, but at the same time it is located in a nice position in the city of Helsinki and surrounded by wonderful nature. In this way Haaga shares many features with aging suburb around the world.

 

Central Park

Central Park is largest green area in Helsinki. Haaga holds part of central park.

Before Construction

According to the research of Haaga and Central Park, it can be assumed that around the 19th century, people were welcomed to jog, ski and pick berries or mushrooms around the wild forest. At that point, it was just a wild area with development.

After Construction

In the beginning of the 20th century, Central Park had been designed by the Architect Bertel Jung and the City Council approved his plan in 1914. Included in his design, many kinds of sport facilities were built in the park, which allow a lot of outdoor and indoor activities in this area. Central Park is one of the important elements in Helsinki. It contains around 7000 hectares of forest area and a variety of ecosystems. Central Park forms a unique natural scene because of its environment.

Animal Cemetery

Something I found attractive in Hagga is “animal cemetery”, which is located in the boundary between Northern Haaga and Kivihaka, also a part of Central park. It is the only pet cemetery in Helsinki and the public cultural space.

The Animal Cemetery and the surrounding Central Park offer a natural way to help people heal themselves, like wandering through the forest or sitting deep in thought by a tree. From this, many questions emerge. Can it be a different form of mourning? How can architecture offer another environment to do this? What roles have animal cemeteries and shelters played in the past 150 years in Haaga? I think it is worthy to ponder those questions.

 

The History of Animal Cemetery

According to the literature, the first animal cemetery in Finland was founded in 1927 in Ruskeasuolen Helsinki and moved to Central Park in Haaga in 1947. The Animal cemetery is maintained by the Helsinki Humane Society HESY – The Helsinki Society for Animal Protection. Most importantly, all the place and its tombstones are the property of their owners.

Going deeply through the history of HESY, it is the pioneer in animal protection in Finland. In 1870, Zacharias Topelius founded the first Finnish Animal Protection Association “Maj Föreningen”, to protect small birds. This validates that the fundamental idea of protecting animals existed in Finland around the 19th century.

The Value of the Animal Cemetery

Pet cemeteries provide a field to help people cope with the emotion associated with death. It can be seen as a valuable property of life-education for everyone, especially children. There are approximately 3000 tombs arranged in Central Park and they seamlessly blend into the forest. Pet owners decorate the tombs for their pets. This area strongly shows love and a sense of loss for all kinds of pets. Many animal cemeteries were built around the end of the 19th century and the mid 20th century. For example, Kaknäs in Stockholm, Hartsdale Pet Cemetery in New York and Cimetière des Chiens, Cemetery of the Dogs in Paris, which was declared to be a first animal cemetery in this modern world (1899). Nowadays, many pet cemeteries are operated by animal shelters.

 

An Increasing Number of Pets

This affection with animals that started hundreds of years ago continues today. The bar chart below shows the total proportion of households that have a pet in Finland, divided into 5 different family sizes, in 2012 and 2016. In 2012, 30 percent of households had a pet. In 2016, around 35% of families had a pet. Based on the research from “Statistics Finland”, in the first half of 2016, households had a total of around 800,000 dogs, while in 2012 the number of dogs was some 630,000. It seems that an increasing number of households have two dogs to keep each other company.

Percentage shares of households owning pets in 2012 and 2016 (3 November 2016)

 A beautiful story in Haaga

My intent is to clarify what can I do in Haaga based on my personal background and recent research. I am focusing on Central Park and The Animal Cemetery because they are vital, diverse elements in the city. They act as both public and the in-between spaces. A beautiful story then emerged in my mind. It can be assumed that the total inhabitants and the density of residential area in Haaga will not change significantly in the next 20 years because a lot of cultural, economic, educational and appealing environments have been established downtown. From this, my design project for Haaga will give attention to seeking its own special character and reusing the original resources in this area instead of depending on newly-established urban planning or developing a more commercial atmosphere.

I believe that the cemetery has the potential to become a component to contribute to a thriving Haaga, and this is why I select its site to redesign. Apparently, the Animal Cemetery is the unique, public cultural space within this area. Pet owners tend to bury their pets in the cemetery for many reasons. The most obvious one is they are forbidden from burying pets in certain places. Also, this cemetery is the only animal graveyard service in Helsinki, which means people will come to Haaga for this specific propose. So, we can try to imagine how the design project offers space not only to local residents but everyone.

 

Let’s Create a Woodland Playground!

A traditional cemetery is a space that functions for a single and specific reason. However, the real meaning of cemetery emerges when people come and mourn. Tombs are placed randomly like sculptures and play a role as a part of the city landscape. On the contrary, the field of an animal cemetery consists of a completely different atmosphere because of the close relationship between people and pets, and the lack of religion. Furthermore, since Finns admire leisure, entertainment and sports activities, Central Park offers a wonderful nature field and a place to establish relationships within Haaga. As I mentioned before, Haaga is struggling to find an identity. There are few cultural facilities nor diverse leisure or public spaces. So, let’s create one which includes the Animal Cemetery.

I have created a custom-made questionnaire to roughly understand local residents and their relationship with Central Park and the Animal Cemetery.

Based on the feedback, half of local habitants have been to the Animal Cemetery and most of them feel warm or neutral without fear within this area. According to the descriptive answer to no.8, people consider the Animal Cemetery as a place that is not suitable to spend time because it is a crowded, disorderly looking area. Remarkably, if people had no pet buried here, they view themselves as outsiders, and tend to not disturb graves. However, there are some thoughtful and interesting opinions. For instance, some residents would love to stay in pet graveyard if it is a park or the atmosphere is more comfortable. Also, some mention it will be enjoyable to share experiences about each other’s pets and some say sometimes the writing on other tombstones from other pet owners are attractive.

How Do People Reminisce Their Pets?

Recent research found that mourning a dog can be harder on a person than mourning a family member or friend. (Frank T. McAndrew, 2017. Why losing a dog can be harder than losing a relative or friend.) Professor Frank points out some reasons behind this situation. Firstly, the way people mourn their pets is totally different from mourning their own kind. When it comes to traditional mourning, there are some cultural services such as grief rituals, religion and obituaries to help us get through the sense of losing a loved one, but none of these services are made for losing pets. Moreover, the concept that “it was just a dog” also repress the emotional response of pet owners. It is both noted in the article and the research I conducted that some people do not understand the over-attachment to pets.

A New Type of Cemetery

Different cities around the world are finding new, non-traditional ways to mourn. The main goal of the new type of cemetery is to address issue concerning the rising land usage of graveyards and to protect the environment from damaged by certain toxic materials in coffins or air pollution from cremation. A novel funerary practice called Anaerobic Bio-Conversion was recently invented by Columbia GSAPP DeathLAB. Roughly, it is a disposition that occurs within discrete Anaerobic Bioconversion Vessels — utilizing microbial methanogenesis to break down organic matter — distilling the corpse to its basic chemical and biological components. Then, the energy — light, which represents the new form of tomb/ grave, will be produced through the generation of methane via anaerobic carbon cycling. The only argument against this contemporary mourning way is the lighting duration of a single person’s death is temporal. Because of the continual series of death from everywhere. Death will never stop. The most vital thing is to heal the sense of losing a beloved one, no matter human or animal.

Proxemics Theory and Social Mixing

According to Proxemics Theory (Edvard T. Hall: Proxemics 1963), Hall described the interpersonal distances of humans (the relative distances between people) in four distinct zones: (1) intimate space (2) personal space 1.5 ft/0.45 m (3) social space 4 ft/1.2 m (4) public space 12 ft-25 ft/ 3.6m-7.6m.

Proxemics can be associated with Social Mixing (Gehl Institute, 2017, The Public Life Diversity Toolkit 2.0). Social mixing occurs on a spectrum from being alone, close friendships and a series of contacts. The Gehl Institute believes the spaces from a street system to benches can play a role in creating tolerant and inclusive communities for people. This underlies good urban design. These ideas will be an important design concept in my project. I observed some people jogging, cycling, walking their dog, taking a stroller and some elders sitting and chatting (12pm- 2pm) around the Animal Cemetery. Some pet owners came to mourn and redecorate their pet’s tomb or trim the plants around the tombs. A woman spent around one hour a company with her dog and lit candles. There are some benches located here, but no one used them. Feedback from questionnaire number 11 shows that around 45% of residents have talked to strangers. Looking deeply through the survey and my observation, current environment around the Animal Cemetery mainly offers a pet’s owner to visit, but diverse activities happen in the west side of Central Park. Obviously, there is a lack of social mixing in this site.

 

Design Process

  1. Moving the current site left to gathering roads and improve the chance to communication with people who pass through or go there for a certain purpose.
  2. Transition of Tombs: Finding a way in which the tombs can easily be replaced because of limited ownership. Based on Anaerobic Bio-Conversion (Columbia GSAPP DeathLAB), trying to use lighting-posts to represent each tomb, and turn them into a piece of installation art.
  3. Offering opportunity for social mixing: Opening the site and putting other functional spaces like a dog park and a playground.
  4. Creating paths within this site. At the same time, every post acts as a sensor to light the space and guide people to the pet monument. The installation art attracts passerbys following custom-routes.
  5. According to the four distinct zones of Proxemics: Categorize public space, semi-public, semi-private and private spaces.

Space Definition

The site to be divided into 3.6(m) x 3.6(m) squares as the limit of widest social space. Customizing these posts to three different sizes to distinguish public, social and personal space.

 

  1. Public space: A space larger than 3.6 m radius allows little or no contact. This is especially true for those who like being alone or are used to staying a proper distance from strangers. The dog park and playground are suitable for this large space. However, the park’s facility would shorten the distance between users, which can enhance social mixing.
  2. Semi-public space: 1.2-3.6 m radius space allows passive, chance contact between strangers. This certain scale of zone provides a comfortable space eye or hearing contact between people. Therefore, the opportunities of random contact such as sharing experience are increased, for people who are both walking their dogs or asking for directions. Social mixing/Civic mixing particularly happens in this zone.
  3. Semi-private space: 0.45-1.2 m radius zone can be adapted for the closer relationships between family and friends.
  4. Private space: It stays an intimate space. During personal visit to the Animal Cemetery, mourning, strolling or quiet contemplation, people need private and silent spaces to heal themselves and memorialize their pets. Different lighting-post define invisible square, where social mixing occurs. Then, these invisible squares develop into real space. The same memorial rules remain on the wall. People are welcome to walk through and read the writing on the walls about every pet who has been loved. The space will be surrounded by memory and peace.

 

 

 

References:

Central Park. [Online] Available at: <https://www.hel.fi/hel2/keskuspuisto/eng/1centralpark/>

Helsinki Humane Society HESY (The Helsinki Society for Animal Protection) [Online] Available at: <https://www.hesy.fi/hesy/>

The number of pets owned by households is increasing, Households’ consumption 2016

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Households’ consumption [e-publication].ISSN=2323-3028. 2016. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 14.12.2018].Available at: <http://www.stat.fi/til/ktutk/2016/ktutk_2016_2016-11-03_tie_001_en.html>

Hanna Antila, 2018, ”Murre, olit kaikkemme” – eläinten hautausmaalla näkyy kaipaus. [Online] Available at: <https://www.kirkkojakaupunki.fi/-/-olit-kaikkemme-elainten-hautausmaalla-nakyy-kaipaus>

Gehl Institute, 2017, The Public Life Diversity Toolkit 2.0. [Online] Available at: <https://issuu.com/gehlinstitute/docs/20160128_toolkit_2.0>

Brown, N. (2001). Edward T. Hall, Proxemic Theory, 1966. CSISS Classics. UC Santa Barbara: Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science. [Online] Available at: <https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4774h1rm>

The Conversation, Frank T. McAndrew, 2017. Why losing a dog can be harder than losing a relative or friend. [Online] Available at: <https://theconversation.com/why-losing-a-dog-can-be-harder-than-losing-a-relative-or-friend-68207>

Columbia GSAPP DeathLAB, ANAEROBIC BIO-COVERSION. [Online] Available at: <http://deathlab.org/anaerobic-bio-coversion/>

Let’s create a Woodland Playground!

Imagination of Woodland Animal Cemetery

 ©Yen-Chi Liang

 

Original Animal Cemetery

–  The only animal cemetery in Helsinki

– 3000 small tombs placed randomly

– 10-year ownership can be up to 20 years

– Dimension of gravestone: A4/maximum thickness of 15 cm

– Family pets grave

– The status of religious symbols is unclear forbidden (some are forbidden for religious reason)

– Burial ground is now quite full

©ESKO JÄMSÄ and David Ramsurrun

Let’s create a Woodland Playground!
Why?

A cemetery is a space that functions for a single and specific reason, especially one for humans. However, the real meaning of cemetery emerges when people come and mourn. Tombs are placed randomly like sculptures and plays a role of a city landscape.

On the contrary, the field of an animal cemetery consists of a completely different atmosphere from normal cemetery because of the close relationship between people and pets, and the lack of religion. Furthermore, Since Finnish admire leisure, entertainment and sports activities, the Central Park offers a wonderful nature field and a place to establish relationship within Haaga. As I mentioned before, Haaga is struggling to find an identity. There are few cultural facilities nor diverse leisure or public spaces. So, let’s create one which includes cemetery and playground!

 

What?

“Everything I was taught in architecture school was about life inside buildings. It was always believed that by changing the inside of buildings, people could have a better life. Then we started to think, maybe ‘good for people’ is not inside the buildings, but also outside the buildings. Maybe, ‘good for people’ is very much what is happening between the buildings and not in the buildings themselves.” – Jan Gehl, IMAGINE Podcast Launches First Episode “Cities for People” Featuring Jan Gehl

I am trying to reconstruct the cemetery organization. I wonder, what if we take tombs out of the animal cemetery because the burial ground is always full. Every tomb represents one pet who was beloved and this causes a significant feeling within the perimeter of each tomb. But this form can be changed in the case of the animal cemetery and the space can become an interface between the people who come for a purpose and those who do not. So, the graveyard would not only be a tree-lined field.

-Breaking away from the traditional animal cemetery

-Creating a multi-functional field for everyone

-Bringing new cultural stimulation to the Central Park and Haaga

-Combining the emotion of mourning and renewal

 

How?

-Define and categorize spatial structures / In-between space

Public, semi-public, semi-private and private space

-Transition of tombs

The same memorial rules remain

Easy to replace (Because of limited ownership)

-Activities gathering

Animal cemetery – mourning, healing, strolling

Sports – Jogging, Walking the dog

Leisure – Picnic, Sauna, Pick berries or mushrooms, Mobile library

Entertainment – Theater, Concert, Drinking, Sharing experience

(People who share the same experience would love to share them with others. This includes people who own pets, pregnant women, joggers, etc.)

 

References:

”Murre, olit kaikkemme” – eläinten hautausmaalla näkyy kaipaus

IMAGINE Podcast, Episode 1: Cities for People

 

Task for the mid-term

Identity of Haaga

During the last five weeks of coursework in Haaga, students have tried to do some historical, cultural or geographical research, individual imagination and identified the meaning of diversity/density. In my own perspective, Haaga is an area that lacks an attractive point to local residents or visitors. The infrastructure, such as hospitals, schools, domestic shops or religion spaces in Haaga, only offers basic support to local residents. There are no cultural facilities nor diverse leisure or public space. It seems like Haaga is struggling to find an identity, but at the same time it is located in a nice position in the city of Helsinki and surrounded by wonderful nature. By reading through some of the studio coursework, I also realized that most students share this feeling within Haaga.

Imagination based on past and future

I tried to clarify what could I do in Haaga based on my personal background and recent research. My past work focused on Central Park (animal cemetery), vital elements in the city and diversity (public and the in-between space). A beautiful story then emerges in my mind. It can be assumed that the total inhabitants and the density of residential area in Haaga will not be changed significantly in the next 20 years because a lot of cultural, economic, educational and appealing environments have established downtown. From this, my design project for Haaga will give attention to seeking its own special character and reusing the original resources in this area instead of depending on newly-established urban planning or developing a more commercial atmosphere.

In the work “Reconstruct Haaga”, I pointed out the animal cemetery which is located on the edge between Central Park and Haaga. I wondered if redesigning the cemetery can help Haaga thrive. Apparently, animal cemetery is the unique, public cultural space within this area. Based on “Statistics Finland”, we understand that the value of animal protection and the number of pets owned by Finnish have increasing meaningfully in the past 150 years. Pet owners tend to bury their pets in the cemetery for many reasons. The most obvious one is they are forbidden from burying pets in certain places. Also, this cemetery is the only animal graveyard service in Helsinki, which means people will come to Haaga for this specific propose. So, we can try to imagine how the design project offers space not only to residents but everyone.

 

©Huli, 04.06.2013

 

Second, the memorial field can be seen as a public space and has become a popular sightseeing spot recently since it offers a peaceful and quiet field. For example, Woodland Cemetery in Stockholm, Sweden, Crematorium in Kakamigahara, Japan(冥想の森) or Cherry Orchard Cemetery in Yilan, Taiwan. All attract those seeking solace. Cherry Orchard Cemetery even has held camping events and become a marathon stop for many years based on its fascinating nature and building style.

Cherry Orchard Cemetery © Fieldoffice Architects

Next Step

The natural landscape in Central Park can definitely offer a harmonious field and enhance the identity of this urban landmark. My main design project will focus on how to improve this in-between space in Central Park. I want to answer the question of how cemetery form should be changed/how Haaga can be re-defined its own value and I want to create a better architecture/diverse urban public space for everyone.

 

References:

Lemmikin hautaaminen itse

Cherry Orchard Cemetery Service Center

Extending Reading:

Cherry Orchard Cemetery by Fieldoffice Architects: ‘a subtle conversation between man and nature’

The Making Places exhibition

Magical Mix

 

Cities for People

People are the vital element within the urban structure. A good or bad urban environment is dependant on whether it is shaped by people. To put this in other words, the question is whether the city is livable or suitable. Humans adapt their basic lifestyle to where they live, what activities they engage in and together these forms different types of city scenes. From this comes a key question: how does architecture offer an urban environment for this diverse modern society?

How do humans live? ©Nikolaj Rhode

 

Diversity of Public Life

First, we shape the cities and then they shape us. –Jan Gehl

Public space can be seen as a culturally-established place where people can do a lot of activities such as communication, business, education and entertainment. Cities are forcing humans to be what they are. On the other hand, people make cities diverse. Humans who come from different backgrounds/countries/ages/genders bring different culture, food, living habits, ideas and more. From this, another question emerges. What do people exactly need in their living space? Obviously, there is no true or false answer because of individual differences. In my opinion, architects and urban planners should consider public space an experimental area that needs to be improved from time to time. It can be assumed that the need for various types of optional activities within the same space plays a key point. Architects make different choices in streets, squares or parks for locals, visitors and even refugees. These form gathering places, which lead to a diverse public space. To be more precise, architects need to provide a platform to satisfy multi-identity space and diverse life to everyone.

The Public Life Diversity Toolkit 2.0, Gehl Institute

 

 The Magic of the in Between

Jan Gehl says: “Everything I was taught in architecture school was about life inside buildings. It was always believed that by changing the inside of buildings, people could have a better life. Then we started to think, maybe ‘good for people’ is not inside the buildings, but also outside the buildings. Maybe, ‘good for people’ is very much what is happening between the buildings and not in the buildings themselves.”

Cities appeal different kinds of people by their urban context, building types or fancy skyline. Like I mentioned before, humans are considered a valuable feature in cities, which means the “in between space” is shown in various scenes in daily-life. People experience in-between space twenty-four seven. All the spaces outside buildings create a rich interface between people, the diverse way we interact with the city and each other or the transition between places and activities. Try to observe everyone you pass on the way home and how they behave. The distance/relationship between people and urban environment will blend to form a unique form of city.

From my own perspective, cities cannot be measured simply by how diverse they are. Observation is the main idea; so that we can gain some insightful data, and then change the city for the better.

 

References:

Jan Gehl, 2010, Cities for People

Gehl Institute, 2016, The Public Life Diversity Toolkit 2.0, pp.6-7

Beyond Wikipedia

In this week’s task, I try to talk about the urban planning outline in “Munkkiniemi and Haaga plan” in 1915, by Architect Eliel Saarinen. Briefly, this proposal is an overall solution, covering town and traffic planning, individual buildings and some public services. By looking through the 1929 map, some specific features of this map like the Länsiympyrä roundabout and high-density inhabitable area were never established nowadays.

Munkkiniemi-Haaga, 1929

 

There is an interesting feature, “roundabout”, that I want to discuss deeply and compare to my home country Taiwan. During the Japanese colonial period in Taiwan, the government proposed a city plan for Tainan City in 1911.

Tainan Urban Planning, 1911

 

According to Kevin Lynch’s famous work- The Image of the City, a planner must form a mental map with five elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. It can be said that the city planning Munkkiniemi-Haaga and Tainan both included the main ingredient of city identity “nodes”. I totally agree that suitable traffic planning is an essential condition to develop a city, but I am not sure if the roundabout form is the best traffic plan. There are seven roundabouts in Tainan, the main one “Min-Sheng Green Park” is located in the center of Tainan and linked to every other one in the city. These roundabouts can be seen as hot spots in the city even today. For example, the train station, Hayashi (Lin Department Store), Tainan Confucius Temple and a lot of historical buildings are near roundabouts. In this modern society, high-density residential area, over-population, development of vehicles cause some problems within these roundabouts. It cannot be denied that multiple connecting streets will lead people to confusion and traffic accident. I interviewed two of my friends from Tainan City. One of them does not appreciate the roundabout for the danger it represents and the architecture usually follows a circular shape, which limits the scene of the city. The other person held the opposite opinion is those roundabouts are important landmarks and offer some public space to inhabitants.

Train Station in Tainan(credit by Flickr @大雄 汪

 

Try to imagine the development of Haaga if Saarinen’s plan had been implemented. Maybe the main idea of traffic separation: electric railway and pedestrian pathway would provide an entirely different view of city compared to Tainan. Nowadays, Haaga already develops its own city perspective. From my view, this comprehensive urban planning Munkkiniemi and Haaga would definitely make Haaga more attractive and stylish.

Länsiympyrä roundabout would look like this if Saarinen had to decide

 

 

References:

http://www.yss.fi/journal/munkkiniemen-ja-haagan-asemakaava-1915/

https://www.raitio.org/vanhasivusto/ratikat/helsinki/muut/muut1.htm

The Impact of Modern Urban Planning on the District around the Prefectural Government of Tainan-Fu after the ching’s Age

 

 

Me, Myseld and I

I’m on the way to finding myself, just like everything is pursuing the right place in this universe.
We’re all trying to define who we are, so we seek out a suitable job or place in higher education to help figure this thing out. Like the universe (urban city context), it has been developed maybe 100 to 5000 years or even much longer, and has been reconstructed repeatedly. Finally, here we are. Everything needs to be in its proper situation.

QGIS Practical 2 Report

QGIS Practical 2 Report

We choose one segment of our excursion as this practical assignment because we think it contains almost all kinds of suburb views in Helsinki.

Technical Description

The basic workflow is background map – stop points – route line – interest points – exploration areas – layout. The whole process is not difficult. The basic tools are learned and practiced in the crash courses. There is a new tool named Georeferencer may be needed if you want to use a download map as the background.

First, you need to assure some location points between the picture and basic map (usually located 5 or 6). The points should be spread everywhere or there will be a big offset. After done it click the green play button.

 

Journey Description

This bike journey starts from a green path around metro “Myllypuro”.

As you can see, there are a stylish modern church and a belfry at the beginning of the green path. Also, there is a park near the church that can provide a place to sightsee this wonderful building.

When it comes to up-hills bike journey, you are surrounded by wild forest and the varied sounds of nature. You should put down your bicycle, walk to the top of the rocky mountain and go picnic. Enjoying the fascinating natural view and overlooking the urban context where only here can offer.

Passing through this large scale of farms, tiny horses are right here and waiting for you at the corner. You can unwind yourself and enjoy this trip within this area without worries. There are serval colorful and wooden rural villas located in between this field. You can experience a unique countryside scene here!

Distinct neighborhood: this stylish neighborhood is already noticeable from far by its hilltop location and by its up high overpass and elevator. The two structures form almost a portal. The following ramp will guide you to experience the cozy scale and relationship of the neighborhood thanks to the dedicated design and planning work.

River view: this delicate bridge acrossing the Vantaanjoki river offers both the tranquil scenery of riverside and water flow and a glance at Pikkukosken uimaranta sand beach located nearby.

Lippakioski, this type of finnish street-side bar is characterized by its overly extend top cover, popular during and after 1940 Olympic games. Nowadays it suffers dereliction. When you stop by please support the loca business!

Local park with WWII vestige: Taivaskallio anti-air spot, interesting layout of stationary defense structure and many others to be explored.

 

Group member: Yao Chaowen, Dong Jiayi, Yen-chi Liang, Li Yingxin

Reconstruct Haaga

Reconstruct Haaga (19-20th century)

Keywords: Central Park、Animal Cemetery (Metsäläntie, 00320 Helsinki)

Central Park Before Construction

According to the research of Haaga and the Central Park, it can be assumed that around the 19th century, people were welcomed to jog, ski and pick berries or mushrooms around the wild forest.

Central Park After Construction

In the beginning of the 20th century, the Central Park had been designed by an Architect Bertel Jung and the City Council approved his plan in 1914. Also, many kinds of sports facilities were built in the park, which allow a lot of outdoor and indoor activities in this area. The Central Park is one of the important elements in Helsinki. It contains around 7000 hectares of forest area and a variety of ecosystems. Central Park forms a unique scene naturally because of its environment.

Jung’s proposal for the Central Park, 1911

Animal Cemetery

Something I found attractive in Hagga is “animal cemetery”, which is located in the boundary between Northern Haaga and Kivihaka, also a part of Central Park. According to the literature, the first animal cemetery in Finland was founded in 1927 in Ruskeasuolen Helsinki and moved to Central Park in Haaga in 1947. The cemetery is maintained by the Helsinki Humane Society HESY (The Helsinki Society for Animal Protection).

Go in deeply through the history of HESY, it is the pioneer in animal protection in Finland. In 1870, Zacharias Topelius founded the first Finnish Animal Protection Association “Maj Föreningen”, to protect small birds. It shows a fundamental idea of protecting animals existed in Finland around the 19th century.

The number of pets owned by households is increasing

This affection with animals that started hundreds of years ago continues today. The bar chart below shows the total proportion of households that have a pet in Finland, divided into 5 amount of family numbers, in 2012 and 2016. In 2012, 30 percent of households had a pet. In 2016, there are around 35% of families who had a pet. Based on the research from “Statistics Finland”, in the first half of 2016, households had a total of around 800,000 dogs, while in 2012 the number of dogs was some 630,000. It seems that an increasing number of households have two dogs to keep each other company.

Percentage shares of households owning pets in 2012 and 2016

Point of View

Pet cemeteries provide a field to help people cope with the emotion associated with death. It can be seen as a valuable property of life-education for everyone, especially children. There are approximately 3000 tombs arranged in Central Park and they seamlessly blend into the forest. Pet owners decorate the tombs for their pets. This area strongly shows love and a sense of loss for all kinds of pets. Many animal cemeteries were built around the end of the 19th century and the mid 20th century. For example, Kaknäs in Stockholm, Hartsdale Pet Cemetery in New York and Cimetière des Chiens, Cemetery of the Dogs in Paris, which was declared to be a first animal cemetery in this modern world (1899). Nowadays, many pet cemeteries are operated by animals shelter.

The Central Park offers a natural way to help people heal themselves, like wandering through the forest or sitting deep in thought by a tree. From this, many questions emerge. Can it be a different form of mourning? How can architecture offer another environment to do this? What roles have animal cemeteries and shelters played in the past 150 years in Haaga? I think it is worthy to ponder those questions.

 

Reference:

STATISTICS FINLAND

https://www.stat.fi/til/ktutk/2016/ktutk_2016_2016-11-03_tie_001_en.html

HESY

https://www.hesy.fi/elainsuojelukeskus/elainten-hautausmaa/

Central Park

https://www.hel.fi/hel2/keskuspuisto/eng/1centralpark/

QGIS Practical 1 Report

QGIS Practical 1 Report-Green Area Proportion
Description&Tips

1. Open the attribute table of Helsinkin_small_area. Edit it and open the field calculator to create a new field with the expression of $area. Then getting the area(m2) of each small area of Helsinki.

  1. Use the Zonal Statistic to calculate the account of pixels of green area in small area. (Notice that don’t type too much on Output column prefix or the name won’t show completely in the attribute table.) The _account means how many pixels located in this area.

  1. Use the field calculator to get the green area(m2) with the expression of _account * 400. (Usually we can know the pixel size when we download or transfer it. But if we forgot, we can still get the approximately size by the tool Measure Line.) Finally, we can calculator the proportion by the expression of Green area(m2) / Area(m2) * 100.

Analysis&Discussion: 1. Basically, we can see that the central areas in Helsinki lacks green land. The Ulkosaaret area gets the lowest proportion because of mostly in the sea. The Ultuna is the highest area because of far from Helsinki center.

Population Pressure

Description&Tips: 1. Join the population layer into the small area layer by the tool Join attributes by layer. Choose intersects as the Geometric predicate, take summary of intersecting features in the Attribute summary and sum in the Statistics for summary. (Notice: the type of population must be point. There would be some repeated calculation when using polygon format and I’ll discuss it later in the Analysis.)

Next we can calculate the population pressure with the expression of sum_asukkaita / green area(m2) * 1000000 (Notice:1. You need to converse the meters to kilometers by multiplying 1000000. 2. When using Field calculator, remember to choose Decimal number as the output field type or some results would be single 0.)

Analysis&Discussion:  1. Generally, the result of the population pressure is quite similar to the proportion of green area. The central Helsinki is quite high and farer place is low. In detailed, Punavuori is the highest area and Salmenkallio is the lowest area. It’s different from the previous result because the population attribution varies.

  1. Shortly, Punavuori, Kamppi and Kaupunginosa are the areas that pressure is much high. They may need to improve the quality of green space.
  1. If you use the polygon type of population, the final result will become bigger because if there are some polygons located between two areas then these polygons will be counted in twice.

For instance, the four pictures below indicate the sum of population with point and polygon types. You can see the population with point type is smaller than with polygon type.

So what shall we do when our population data is polygon format? We can use the Vector -Geometry tools – Polygon centroids to convert the polygon into the point. You can see each polygon create a point in its centroid.

  1. Above the discussion we get acknowledge that elements between two areas may cause bias. How about if one point locate between two areas? We all know point is infinitesimal in mathematical definition. However, in QGIS we can’t assure if it has some size. So when a point locate in the line between two areas, what would happen? We’re still trying to figure it out.

 

Group member: Yao Chaowen, Dong Jiayi, Yen-chi Liang, Li Yingxin